Senin, 30 April 2012

  • Invitation

Invitation is a way to invite someone or more to go to a place or to do something.
There are two types of invitation:
1. Formal Invitation
Formal invitation is usually originate from Institutes, Companies and a kind of it. Normally formal invitation is written invitation.

2. Informal Invitation
Informal invitation is personal invitation given to a friend, family, etc. Informal invitation can be written invitation and verbal invitation.

How to write an invitation
Step 1
before you write an invitation; decide on the tone, voice and level of formality, based on the event itself. This will dictate whether you hand-write the cards or have them printed, and whether you choose A preprinted or personalized invitation.
Step 2
Choose the type of invite you want, and order or buy a few more than you think you'll need. This will permit you to add some guests to your list at the last minute, if necessary. For small parties, you may want to hand-write the invitations on stationery or blank cards. For large gatherings, consider ordering printed invitations.
Step 3
Determine the wording of your invite based on the level of formality. For example, a formal invitation might say, 'Dr. and Mrs. Stanley request the pleasure of your company,' whereas a more casual note might say, 'Please join us.'
Step 4
Include the names of the host and/or hostess, as well as the place (with street address), time, date and purpose of the occasion, even if it's a simple get-together.
Step 5
Make sure to add RSVP information at the bottom of the invite if you need to know who will be attending; for example, 'RSVP' followed by your telephone number.
R.S.V.P. stands for a French phrase, "répondez, s'il vous plaît," which means "please reply.“The person sending the invitation would like you to tell him or her whether you accept or decline the invitation. That is, will you be coming to the event or not?
Step 6
Include a respond-by date on a formal invitation so you can get an accurate head count in time to adjust the amount of food, number of place settings and room size. For a wedding, charity function or other formal event, consider including a response card and a stamped, self-addressed envelope inside the envelope containing your invite.
Step 7
Mail invitations three weeks before most events, four weeks before a formal affair and three months before a wedding, to allow for airline reservations. For events held during the December holidays, send invitations around Thanksgiving.
Example of invitation:
1. Wedding invitation
2. Birthday invitation
3. Baby shower
4. Dinner invitation

News Item

News Item Text - Explanations and Examples

.News items are one type of "text" that can lead us into a reliable journalist. By studying this text, we at least have been training to be able to write like a professional news writers. Therefore, do not be lazy if the teacher told my friend to do the task of creating a text message in English, okay? Well maybe one day my friend can be a high profile journalist :)
However, if my friend has not fully understand the text of this news item, it goes buddy grieve; hopefully by reading this article my friend could be smarter than the father / teacher friend in writing a news item text :)

Definition News Item

Generic Structure of News Item

What Makes a News Item

Example News Item

Definition News Item
News item is a text about the which informs readers events of the day. Considered The events are newsworthy or important. (News item is a text that gives information about the incident / event daily. Daily event is considered to be news worthy or [could say] important)
That is, if there is a significant event that should be known by many people, then it deserves to be a news event. Well, it was called a text message with the news item. However, if there is an inappropriate event is known by many people, the event certainly did not deserve to be news.
Generic Structure of News Item
There are three common arrangement in writing a news item, here is a generic structure of the News item:

Main Events: The main event which deserves to be news.
Elaboration: A description of the background of the event; the people involved in the incident; where events occurred, and others ..
Resource of Information [Source]: The source of news; comments of the witnesses; opinions of experts, and others.
For the first point, the main event should really newsworthy. Do not let there be a scene as an important ga news entry, will be the readers / viewers do not like the news story. For example: Mr. momod Go to Market to Buy Rice .. whoa who tuh pack momod .. :)
What Makes a News Item
There are so many common traits news item text; most prominent feature of the language is concise and straightforward. A few more of them:

Frequent use of action verbs
Dominant use of saying verbs
Many use the adverb of time, adverb of place, adverb of manner.

Action verbs are verbs that show the activity. (Read more clearly: Dynamic Verbs)
Saying verbs such as "reported, said, quoted, saying, preach, quoting".
Read adverb: adverb type

Example News ItemPamekasan student wins math contest in Romania
Alyssa Diva Mustika, a student from Pamekasan Junior High School, East Java, won the gold medal at the International Mathematics Contest held in Romania Between March 22 to 29, Antara news agency reported.
news itemSpeaking to Journalists, Diva said she was glad That she had been Able to win the competition, the which she said had been very tight. "Thank God I won. I will study harder, "she said.
Indonesia sent 10 students to the competition in Romania. Diva is not the first Pamekasan student to win an international science competition. Oktavian Latif, a student from SMA Negeri 1 Pamekasan won gold at the International Physics Olympiad in 2006. Another student, Shohibul Maromi, won the same award in 2010.
"I thank Diva for giving a good name to Indonesia and Pamekasan on the international stage," Pamekasan Regent Kholilurrahman said as quoted by Antara.
Example News Item analysis above:
First paragraph: Main EventsSecond & Third paragraph: Elaboration
Fourth paragraph: Sources.

Offering Expression

Offering Expression

The expression of “ Would you like....”is normally used for offering something to someone.

Ways to say it :

* Would you like a cup of coffee, Mr. Ardi?
* Should I get you a bottle of water?
* Could I offer you a glass of milk, Mr. Rio?
* Would you care some salad?

Offering to friends:
* Want some?
* Have some?
* Chocolate?
* Grab some for yourself

Less formal expressions:

* Would you like to have a drink?
* Why don't you have some pie?
* What can I get for you?
* What will you have?

Declining an offering :

* No, thanks.
* No, really won't, thanks
* Not for me, thanks.

Accepting an offering :

* Thank you, Kim Bum.
* Yes, please
* I'd like it very much
* That would be very nice

Asking for information

Asking for information
-(Excuse me) can could you tell me (the way to the station/...)
-Do you know (if they are here / when they leave /...)
-Could you give me some information about ...
-Is it true that (they have moved /...)
-Have you got an idea of (when they leave / ...)
-I'd like to know (what he does / ...)

Correcting agreeing with a statement
-Yes, it is / was / will ...
-Oh yes, I did / Oh no, I didn't.
-That's (quite) right.
-No, it isn't really so.
-I'm sorry but that isn't correct.
- Well, it's the contrary in fact.

Asking about language
-Pardon? / I beg your pardon?
-I'm sorry I didn't catch what you said.
-What do you mean?

-What is the meaning of ...?
-How do you pronounce..?
-How do you say that?
-How is it spelt? How do you spell ...?

Expressing certainty
Being sure.
I'm sure / certain (that) (he will come / ...)
-There is no doubt about it.
-No doubt (you'd like to see your gift / ...)
-I certainly think / believe that (she was unhappy / ...)
-I'm positive on that point.
I'm certain...
-It is obvious that ...
-That goes without saying.
-It's crystal clear.
-It's as sure as two and two make four.
Being less sure.
-I think so
-I think that ( they will be there by 6 / ...)
-I suppose so.
-I suppose / expect that ( it is the way to the bus stop /...)
-I believe that ( he is sick / ...)
-I assume (that ) (they did it / ...)
-It's more than probable that ...
-I wouldn't be surprised if ....
Being unsure.
I'm not sure (that) ...
-I wonder if...
-I doubt if ...
-May be / perhaps (they're right / ...)
-It's very doubtful whether (he'll accept / ...)
-There's a little chance of ( arriving in time / ...)
-It isn't known for use ...
Not knowing.
-I don't think so.
-I don't think that (they will give her a ring / ...)
-I don't know / I've no idea / I wouldn't like to say (where it is).
-I haven't the faintest idea.
-Sorry, I can't tell you.

Inquiring about certainty
-Are you (quite) sure (that) ...
-Do you think so?
-Do you think that ...?
-Do you believe / suppose that (it's a good idea / ...)?

Expressing possibility
-It is possible
-It is possible (that) (it rains / ...)
-I / you ... can (drive / read / ...)
-He / we / ... is/are capable of ( doing better / ...)

Expressing impossibility
-It is impossible
-It is impossible (that) (it rains / ...)
-I / you ... can't (drive / read / ...)
-You can't possibly ( do this / ...)

Inquiring about possibility
-Is it possible?
-Is it possible (that) (he will come / ...)
-Will he / she / they .. be able to (do it / ...)?
-Can he / she /.... (drive / read /...)?

Expressing obligation
-You have (got) (to go / ...)
-We / you ..must (leave / ...)
-Do behave yourself!
-It is compulsory.
You are to .. (be there at 4 / ...)

-We are forced to do so.
-We were obliged to (pay / ...)

Expressing there is no obligation
-It's not necessary / not necessarily.
-No) you needn't / you don't need to ... (go out / ...)
-No need to (wait / ...)
-You don't have to .. (wait / ...)
-You haven't got to (wash the car / ...)
-It is not compulsory.
-It is not absolutely vital.
-Why should you?
-You aren't obliged to ...(wait for them /...)

Inquiring about obligation
-Must we ( go / stay /...)
-Do you have to ( wash our hands / wait/...)
-Have I / we got to ( go now /...)
-Is it compulsory?
-Am I / Are we required to ( take an exam / ...)
-Need we (stay / ...)
-Am I to (wait here / ...) ?
-Am I obliged to (leave / ...)?
-Are we supposed to (read this book / ...)?

Forbidding, refusing permission
Parking is strictly forbidden / prohibited here.
-Trespassers will be prosecuted.
-No begging / parking / waiting / ...
-They won't let me (go out / ...)
-Nobody is to (enter this area / ...)
-I was refused permission to ( use my car / ...)
-You may not (drink alcohol / ...)
-We weren't allowed to (talk / ...)
-It's out of question.
-Smoking / drinking alcohol .. is not permitted/ is prohibited.

Modals In Past Form

Past modals come in two forms. The first type is the easiest and usually requires only a simple word change:
    I can drive.
    I could drive when I was 16.
    I have to go to California.
    I had to go to California.
    Lenny will pay tomorrow.
    Lenny said he would pay tomorrow.

    (present ability)
    (past ability)
    (present obligation)
    (past obligation)
    (future intention)
    (future reported from the past)
Past modals with have
Some past modals can be formed by using have + the past participle of the main verb immediately after the modal. (should have, could have, would have, etc.)
However, since modals express possibility, intention, obligation, etc., they do not always indicate a definite tense. Therefore, when using past modals with have, special meanings need to be considered.
I should go to the funeral.
I should have gone to the funeral.
Lex might take Karen to the airport.
Lex might have taken Karen to the airport.
Lex could have taken Karen to the airport.
Lex would have taken Karen to the airport.
Otis didn't come to work yesterday.
He had to take care of his children.
His children must have been sick.

(I feel an obligation to go--later.)
(I didn't go. Now I regret it.)
(It's a future possibility.)
(He may be on his way there now.)
(Most likely he didn't.)
(He didn't. He had an excuse.)
(past fact)
(past obligation)
(conjecture about the past)

Finite and nonfinite verb

Verbs - Finite / Non Finite

Finite Verbs
A finite verb (sometimes called main verbs) is a verb that has a subject, this means that it can be the main verb in a sentence. It shows tense (past / present etc) or number (singular / plural).
For example:-
I live in Germay. (I is the subject - live describes what the subject does - live is a finite verb).
Non-Finite Verbs
A non-finite verb has no subject, tense or number. The only non-finite verb forms are the infinitive (indicated by to), the gerund or the participle.
For example:-
I travelled to Germany to improve my German. (To improve is in the infinitive form).

Noun Phrase

The Noun Phrase

Recognize a noun phrase when you see one.

A noun phrase includes a noun—a person, place, or thing—and the modifiers which distinguish it.
You can find the noun dog in a sentence, for example, but you don't know which canine the writer means until you consider the entire noun phrase: that dog, Aunt Audrey's dog, the dog on the sofa, the neighbor's dog that chases our cat, the dog digging in the new flower bed.
Modifiers can come before or after the noun. Ones that come before might include articles, possessive nouns, possessive pronouns, adjectives, and/or participles.
Articles: a dog, the dog
Possessive nouns:
Aunt Audrey's dog, the neighbor's dog, the police officer's dog
Possessive pronouns:
Our dog, her dog, their dog
That dog, the big dog, the spotted dog
The drooling dog, the barking dog, the well trained dog
Modifiers that come after the noun might include prepositional phrases, adjective clauses, participle phrases, and/or infinitives.
Prepositional phrases: A dog on the loose, the dog in the front seat, the dog behind the fence
Adjective clauses:
The dog that chases cats, the dog that looks lost, the dog that won the championship
Participle phrases:
The dog whining for a treat, the dog clipped at the grooming salon, the dog walked daily
The dog to catch, the dog to train, the dog to adopt
Less frequently, a noun phrase will have a pronoun as its base—a word like we, everybody, etc.—and the modifiers which distinguish it. Read these examples:
We who were green with envy
We = subject pronoun; who were green with envy = modifier.
Someone intelligent
Someone = indefinite pronoun; intelligent = modifier.
No one important
No one = indefinite pronoun; important = modifier.